Thursday, 30 December 2010

How is Ethnicity represented?

How is Ethnicity represented? Comment on Mise-en-scene, Camera, Editing and Sound.

What is Ethnicity?

Ethnicity - is a group of people whose members identify with each other, through a common heritage, consisting of a common language, a common culture/religion and a tradition of common ancestry. Often, ethnicity also connotes shared cultural, linguistic, behavioural or religious traits.

Members of an ethnic group are conscious of belonging to an ethnic group; ethnic identity is further marked by the recognition from others of a group's distinctiveness. Membership of an ethnic group is likely to imply certain very specific health risks and needs.

Ethnicity is a major factor affecting the health of individuals and communities. While the 'ethnicity' (or 'ethnic group') describe many national differences in the way that ethnic groups are described, it is also said that 'ethnicity' is a socially constructed identity, and doesn’t genetically determine behaviour and the qualities of the individual.

Examples and Stereotypes of Ethnicity:
  - British - self-deprecating, posh/snobby, roast dinners, cups of tea, bad teeth
  - Mexicans - poncho, nachos, tequilla slammers
  - Irish - guiness, leprechauns,  gypsies, accent
  - Catholics - close-minded, religious, no sex before marriage
  - Indians - curry, wear hijab, arranged marriages, henna, bindi spots
  - Americans - 'fake', plastic surgery, ignorant, overweight, dramatic
  - Muslims - terrorists, wear head coverings, pray a lot, Allah
  - Black people - 'gangsters', violent/aggressive, hooligans/criminals, guns/knives, drug dealers, athletic


Watch a Hospital Drama and apply one of the narrative theories to it. Also look at how the characters are represented through mise-en-scene, camera angles and sound. 400 words approx.

Hospital Drama

Key conventions of hospital drama:
Typical characters:
   - Doctors
   - Nurses
   - Surgeons
   - Patients

    - In/around hospital
    - Hospital wards
    - Ambulance

   - Making people better
   - Saving peoples lives
   - Hospital romance

Kidulthood Analysis

Watch a 5 minute clip of 'Kidulthood' directed by Menhaj Huda. Analyse at least 6 camera angles or editing techniques in your clip and comment on their effectiveness.


In its earliest form audience theory believed that an audience was a mass. Blumer set out 4 stages:
1) Its membership may come from all walks of life, and from distinguishable social strata; it may include people of different class position, of different vocation, of different cultural attainment, and of different wealth.
2) The mass is an anonymous group, or more exactly is composed of anonymous individuals (Blumer means anonymous is the sense that unlike the citizens of earlier communities, the people who are members of the mass audience for the media do not know each other).
3) There exists little interaction or change of experience between members of the mass. They are usually physically separated from one another and, being anonymous do not have the opportunity to mill as do members of the crowd.
4) The mass is very loosely organized and is not able to act with the unity of a crowd.

Audience Types 
- Mainstream - unlikely ever to view anything other than major 'Hollywood' style blockbusters
- Mainstream plus - generally mainstream, but apt to see less mainstream films on a few occasions
- Aficionados - tend to view a mix of films, including major foreign language titles, and can be encouraged to become even more adventurous in their viewing choices
- Film Buffs1 - eschew mainstream films in favour of more extreme, esoteric, challenging and difficult subject matter (specialised) films


M edia Language
I nstitutions - (produced by? influence on text)
G enre - (codes/conventions)
R epresentation - (who, what, where, why? accurate/biased/fair)
A udience - (aimed at? mode of address, audience theory)
I deologies/Value
N arrative - (structure/character roles/themes)

Magazine Keywords: Front Cover

Masthead - the title of the magazine. Usually places at the top of the front cover (for display purposes).
Puff - words/phrases on the cover (used to boost status)
Central Image - principle image on the front cover
Plug - information about a magazines contents
Left Side Third - important or appealing information placed here as magazine may be displayed horizontally
Cover Lines - information about the main articles
Direct Mode of Address - words that 'talk' to the reader personally
Tag Line - information about a magazines contents

Media Language - Mode of Address

On the cover/double-page spread:
- Teaser - taste of whats inside/enigma
- Modifier - adjectives
- Ellipsis - missing letters/words
- Minor sentences - simple sentences
- Declaratives - statements
- Imperatives
- Interrogatives - questions
- Exclamations
- Alliteration
- Puns - playing on words
- Contractions - shortening/abbreviating words
- Idomatic phrases

Saturday, 11 December 2010

What is Class/Status?

Class - is a categorization about economics and lifestyle. Social classes are economic or cultural arrangements of groups in society. Examples of class are upper class, working class and lower class.

Status - is about how you are viewed by society. 

Stereotypes of Class/Status:
Upper class:
  - 'Posh'
  - Snobby
  - Wealthy/rich
  - Big house/mansion
  - Expensive clothing (e.g. designer clothing/brand names)
  - Rude/disrespectful attitude
  - Arrogant/ignorant
  - Selfish
  - Often away on business
  - Always go on holiday
  - Speak formal english

Working Class:
  - Less formal clothing, scruffy (e.g. builder)
  - Terraced housing
  - Lack of parking
  - Busy
  - Few children

Lower Class:
  - Council flats
  - Criminals (e.g. theft/burglary)
  - Do drugs/drug dealers
  - Alcoholics
  - Many children
  - 'Scroungers' (e.g. benefits)
  - 'Chavvy' clothing
  - No/few qualifications
  - Jobless (cant get one/cant be bothered)
  - Lazy

What is Sexuality?

Sexuality - Sexuality describes the whole way a person goes about expressing themselves as a sexual being.  It describes how important sexual expression is in a person's life; how they choose to express that sexuality and any preference they may have towards the type of sexual partner they choose.  Human sexuality rarely falls into neat categories or lends itself to simple labelling. 

In recent times however, the word sexuality has come to also have a more limited meaning. Sexuality is now often defined by whether the gender of the sexual partners we choose is the same as our own or different.

Examples of sexuality:
  - Homosexual (eg. gay/camp, lesbian)
  - Bisexual
  - Transexual
  - Hetrosexual
  - Straight
  - Gender (e.g. men, women)

Representation of sexuality:
  - Clothes
  - Gestures
  - Behaviour
  - Relationships
  - Accent/speech
  - Narrow minded/limited
  - Friends